Anatomy Index


Head & Neck

Head & Neck

Thorax & Abdomen

Thorax & Abdomen

Upper Limb

Upper Limb

Lower Limb

Lower Limb



-  Anatomical Position

-  Planes, Sections & References

-  Movements

-  Definitions & Interpretations



-  Approach to anatomy uses two systems

-  Regional

-  OR Systemic

-  Learning by regions allows

-  Greater detail to be covered

-  The relationship between adjacent/regional structures to be appreciated

-  Differentiation of local structures

-  In each region the following system layout is used

-  Bones

-  Joints

-  Movements & ROM

-  Muscles

-  Trigger Points

-  Organs

-  Viscerotomes

-  Arterial Supply

-  Venous Drainage

-  Lymphatic Drainage

-  Innervation

-  Cutaneous Innervation

-  Dermatomes

-  Reflexes

-  Regional Anatomy

-  Surface Anatomy

-  In the last section of the text a summary of each system and meridian allows consolidation of previous information

-  Learning by systems allows

-  Continuity of learning

-  Understanding of the function and relationship as a system rather than in isolation

-  Clinical notes are mentioned throughout the text

-  By combining the two methods we embrace the reductionist to uncover the detail and use the wholistic/systemic approach to uncover the relevance to the whole




Anatomical Position



-  This is the assumed position of the body when used to reference locations, movements, etc.




Planes, Sections & References


Planes & Sections

-  Coronal

-  Divides into anterior & posterior

-  Sagital

-  Vertical plane which divides into left & right

-  Midsagital

-  Vertical plane which divides into two eqaul left & right halves

-  Transverse/Horizontal

-  Horizontal plane, divides into superior & inferior

-  Cardinal

-  Two equal halves (superior/inferior, left/right, anterior/posterior)


Reference Terminology

-  All the following terms make reference to the anatomical position, regardless of the actual position of the person being studied

-  Anterior/Posterior: closer to front/rear

-  ie: the chest is anterior to the back; the back is posterior to the chest

-  Ventral/Dorsal: closer to front/backÉ..

-  ie: the back of the hand is dorsal to the palm; the palm is ventral to the back of the hand

-  Medial/Lateral: closer/further from midlilne of body

-  ie: the little finger is medial to the thumb; the thumb is lateral to the little finger

-  Ulnar/Radial: closer/further from midlilne of body

-  ie: the little finger is on the ulnar aspect of the forearm; the thumb is on the radial aspect of the forearm

-  Superior/Inferior: higher/lower

-  ie: the knee is superior to the ankle; the ankle is inferior to the knee

-  Proximal/Distal: closer/further from attached limb or trunk

-  ie: the wrist is proximal to the shoulder; the shoulder is distal to the wrist

-  Superficial/Deep: outermost or most external/innermost or most internal

-  ie: the skin is superficial to the bones; the bones are deep to the skin

-  Ipsilateral/Contralateral: related to the same/opposite side of the body

-  ie: the right hand is on the ipsilateral side of the body to the right shoulder; the right hand is on the contralateral side of the body to the left shoulder

-  Bilateral/Unilateral: related to both sides/single side

-  ie: we have two kidneys bilaterally; we have one liver unilaterally on the right

-  Cranial/Caudal: closer/further to frontal pole of brain, changes with relation to the brain

-  ie: the frontal lobe is cranial to the occipital lobe; the occipital lobe are caudad to the frontal lobe

-  Rostral/Caudal: closest/furthest

-  ie: the brain is rostral to the spinal cord; the spinal cord is caudad to the brain






Figure 1.2 Planes and Sections of the anatomical position


Upper Limb Reference

-  The radial aspect is the lateral side whereas the ulnar aspect is the medial side (figure 1.3)


Upper Limp Reference


Figure 1.3 Radial Aspect (Lateral) and Ulnar Aspect (Medial)






-  Movements use the same planes and sections as described to the anatomical position


-  Pronation

-  Supination

-  Flexion

-  Extension

-  Abduction

-  Adduction

-  External/Lateral Rotation

-  Internal/Medial Rotation

-  Circumduction

-  Elevation

-  Depression

-  Dorsi Flexion

-  Plantar Flexion

-  Eye movements




Definitions & Interpretations


-  Myotomes: masses of muscle innervated by an individual spinal nerve

-  Sclerotomes: areas of bone and periosteum innervated by an individual spinal nerve

-  Dermatomes:  areas of skin innervated by an individual spinal nerve