Antibiotics

Last updated 20.09.12

 

BacteriaCover

   

Classification

-  Broad spectrum (G+ & G-) vs narrow

-  Inhibit the growht of or kill bacteria: Bacteriostatic vs bacteriocidal

 

Classes

-  Aminoglycosides

-  Carbapenems

-  Cephalosporins

-  Fluoroquinolones

-  Macrolides

-  Penicillins

-  Sulphonamides

-  Tetracyclines

-  Miscellaneous

-  Chloramphenicol

-  Linezolid

-  Metronidazole (Flagyl)

-  Mupirocin (Bactroban)

-  Vancomycin

 

 

Bacteria Top

Antibiotic Mircro-organism Coverage

 

Gram Positives

-  Penicillins

-  Cephalopsorins: first & second generation

-  Macrolides

-  Fluoroquinolones

-  Vancomycin

-  Sulphonamides

-  Clindamycin

-  Tetracyclines

-  Chloramphenicol

-  Linezolid

 

Gram Negatives

-  Penicillins: broad spectrum only

-  Cephalopsorins: second, third & fourth generation

-  Aminoglycosides

-  Macrolides

-  Fluoroquinolones

-  Monobactams

-  Sulphonamides

-  Carbapenems

-  Chloramphenicol

 

Anaerobics

-  Metronidazole

-  Clindamycin

-  Penicillins: broad spectrum

-  Fluoroquinolones  

-  Carbapenems

-  Chloramphenicol

 

Pseudomonas

-  Ciprofloxacin

-  Aminoglycosides

-  Cephalopsorins: some 3rd generation, all 4th generation

-  Penicillins: broad spectrum only

-  Carbapenems

 

Atypical Coverage

-  Macrolides: Legionella, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia

-  Tetracyclines: Rickettesiae, Chlamydia

-  Fluoroquinolones: Legionella, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia

-  Chloramphenicol: Rickettsiae, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma

-  Ampicillin: Listeria

 

 

IVPO Top

Switching from IV to PO Abx

 

- Criteria for early switch from IV to Oral (all of)

-  S/S improving & stable haemodynaimcs

-  Temp < 38 x2 over 24hrs

-  WBC normalising

-  Functioning GIT

-  Tolerating & absorbing other oral/NG meds

 

- Early switch NOT if

-  Positive Blood culture

-  SBE

-  Immunocompromised

-  Meningitis

-  Osteomyelitis, deep abscess or empyema

- Equivelants (IV:PO)

-  Amoxycillin 1-2g QID IV

-  = 500mg-1g TDS PO

-  Azithromycin 500mg Daily IV

-  = Roxitrhomycin 300mg Daily PO

-  = Azithromycin 500mg Daily PO

-  Benzylpenicillin 600mg-1.2g QID IV

-  = Amoxycillin 500mg-1g TDS PO

-  Ceftriaxone 1g Daily IV

-  = Augmentin DF 875mg/125mg BD PO

-  = Cefuroxime 500mg BD PO (capsule)

-  Cephazolin 1g TDS IV

-  = Cephalexin 500mg QID PO

-  Clindamycin 300-600mg TDS IV = PO

-  Diclox/Flucloxacillin 1-2g QID IV

-  = 500mg-1g QID PO

-  Fluconazole 200-400mg Daily IV = PO

-  Metronidazole 500mg BD IV

-  = 400mg BD PO

-  Moxifloxacin 400mg Daily IV = PO

-  Timentin 3g/0.1g QID IV

-  = Augmentin DF 875mg/125mg BD PO

-  If Pseudomonas or resistant G- talk to ID

-  Variconazole 200-400mg BD IV = PO

 

 

Reactions Top

Reactions to Antibiotics

 

Features

- Reactions vary but possible with any antibiotc

- Reactions to penicillins may cross react with cephalosporins

 

Side Effects

- Candida (Thrush): oral, genital..

- Pseudomembranous colitis

- Allergy: anaphylaxis, sulfur allergy & sulphonamides, penicillins

 

 

 

References