Blood Groups



Drugs – Illicit & Legal





Blood Groups <Up>



-  Essential for blood transfusion

-  Many different Ag groups identified (>100)

-  ABO & Rh most important


ABO Blood Groups

-  Found on chromosome 9p

-  Mendellian codominance inheritance

-  A: A Ag, Anti-B Ab

-  B: B Ag, Anti-A Ab

-  AB: A & B Ag, nil Ab, universal recipient

-  O: nil Ag, Anti-A & Anti-B Ab, universal donor


Rhesus (Rh)

-  2nd most important blood group

-  D Ag = Rh +ve, nil Ag = Rh –ve

-  15% population Rh-ve

-  Must be considered in pregnant women due to risk of eryhroblastosis foetalis from reaction


Duffy Ag

-  Acts as a receptor for Plasmodium vivax (Malaria)

-  70% pop lack Duffy Ag in malaria endemic areas



-  Diathermy: bipolar, cutting, coagulation






Needle HolderMosquitoes



Drugs – Illicit & Legal <Up>


-  Amphetamines

-  Metamphetamines

-  Ecstasy

-  BZDs

-  Cannabis

-  Cocaine

-  GHB

-  Heroin

-  Ketamine


Amphetamines <Up>

-  Street names: speed, up, fast, louee, goey, whiz, pep pills, uppers, Lou Reed, rabbit, tail, prep pills

-  Paste: base, pure, point, wax

-  Liquid: leopards blood, ox blood, red speed, liquid red

-  $: $350/g, $50/point (0.1g)

-  Route: oral, intranasal, IV, anal


Metamphetamine <Up>

-  Street names: ice, shabu, crystal meth, glass, d-meth, batu

-  $: $350/g, $50/point (0.1g)


MDMA (Ecstasy) <Up>

-  Street names: E, X, XTC, eccies, pills, love drug, m&m, go, scooby snacks, hug, beans

-  $: $35/tablet

-  Route: oral, intranasal, inhaled, IV (rare)


BZDs <Up>

-  Street names: pins, super valium (Clonazepam), vals, V (Diazepam), rohies/roofies (Flunitrazepam), moggies (Nitrazepam), Sarahs (Oxazepam), footballs, normies (Temazepam)


Cannabis <Up>

-  Street names: grass, pot, hash, weed, reefer, dope, herb, mull, Buddha, ganja, joint, stick, buckets, cones, skunk, hydro, yarnd, smoke, booch

-  $: $20/g

-  Route: inhaled (joint, bong), ingested


Cocaine <Up>

-  Street names: C, coke, nose candy, snow, white lady, toot, Charlie, blow, white dust, stardust

-  Crack: rock, wash

-  $: $360/g, $50/cap (0.1 – 0.3g)

-  Route: inhaled, IV


GHB <Up>

-  Street names: fantasy, grevious bodily harm (GBH), liquid ecstasy, liquid E, liquid X, salty water, Georgia Home Boy, soap, scoop, organic Quaalude, cherry meth, blue nitro, Frankie

-  $: $5-10/dose (5 – 15ml)

-  Route: oral, IV


Heroin <Up>

-  Street names: smack, skag, dope, H, junk, hammer, slow, gear, harry, horse, black tar, china white, Chinese H, white dynamic, dragon, elephant, homebake, poison

-  $: $300/g, $50/cap/point (0.1g)

-  Route: IV, inhaled (chasing the dragon)


Ketamine <Up>

-  Street names: special K, kitkat, vitamin K, Ket

-  Route: oral, anal, IM



Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) <Up>


Levels of Evidence

-  1: 1+ systemiativ review of well designed RCTs

-  2: 1+ well designed RCTs (adequate size)

-  3: Well designed trials: pseudo-randomised, non-randomised, cohort studies, time series or matched case control studies

-  4: Well designed non-experimental studies from 1+ centre or research group or case reports

-  5: Opinions or respected authorities, based on clinical evidence, descriptive studies or reports of expert comittees



-  Determine question: PICO

-  Population

-  Intervention

-  Comparator

-  Outcome

-  Determine best study type

-  Determine best resource to find studies