Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) , Hyaline Membrane Disease (HMD)

Last updated 03.11.12

 

Definition

-  Presents in premature infants due to insufficient surfactant production & structural immaturity

 

Features

-  Leading cause of death in preterm infants

-  1% newborn infants

-  Incidence

-  50% babies 26-28 weeks

-  25% babies 30-31 weeks

 

Associated S/S

-  Tachpnoea

-  Apnoea

-  Tachycardia

-  Intercostal recession

-  Expiratory grunting

-  Flaring nostrils

-  Cyanosis

 

DDx

-  Pneumonia

-  Metabolic disorder: hypothermia, hypoglyceamia

-  Transient Tachpnoea of Newborn (TTN)

-  Meconium aspiration syndrome

-  Congenital heart disease

 

Ix

-  CXR

-  DDx TTN: perihilar streaking

-  Reduced lung volume

-  Air bronchograms

-  Ground glass opacity

-  Pulse oximetry

-  ABGs

-  WBC: DDx infection

-  CRP

-  Blood culture: DDx pneumonia

 

Mx

-  Prevention

-  Steroids: Dexa or Betamethasone

-  Surfactant at birth

-  NICU

-  Abx

-  O2 with CPAP

-  NBM with TPN

-  IV fluids

-  Intubation: as required

 

 

References